Careful manipulation of force that is used to guide the teeth into a new and improved position is what allows orthodontics to move teeth. Together, the cells of the ligament, cementum and bone continually form and reform in response to the normal forces of the bite. Compression causes resorption (melting away or dissolving) of bone and cementum. Tension causes the cells to respond by depositing bone and cementum. Teeth have ligaments made from fibers. These fibers join to the root surfaces that are inserted into the cementum and on the other side of the ligament, the fibers insert into the bone. The total ligament is like a hammock that allows teeth to move in their sockets and to respond to stresses of biting forces.
Wires provide a force as it interacts with each specific bracket. Each of your teeth has a different size and shape, and so do the brackets. Each bracket is custom made for the particular tooth on which it’s supposed to fit. Brackets have small slots where we insert the wire and small elastic ties fit around the bracket to hold the wire in place.Pressure at the bracket produces pressure and tension at the root of the tooth, causing remodeling of bone and tooth movement. Elastics are worn at some point during orthodontic treatment, connecting from upper jaw to the lower jaw and creating force as well. Brackets, wires, and elastics work together to move teeth over time to achieve an optimal bite and beautiful smile.